Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Page: 344-349
Khat Chewing and Self Rated Oral Health Out Comes in Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia
Muluken Walle, Medical physiology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Received: Sep. 26, 2014;       Accepted: Oct. 18, 2014;       Published: Oct. 30, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20140206.14      View  2504      Downloads  173
Abstract
Introduction: Khat, Catha edulis, is a plant where its fresh leaves and buds are consumed due to its stimulant ingredient, cathinone. It is found in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Bahir Dar is a city in the north western Ethiopia where three percent of Ethiopia’s total production of khat is originated. So far there is one community based study that has been done in Bahir Dar city on the effect of khat chewing on self rated general health problems. This study was conducted specifically to examine the association of khat chewing behavior on self rated oral health problem among male khat chewers.Objective: The main aim of this study is to determine effects of khat chewing behaviors (onset, frequency and amount of khat chewing) on self rated oral health status among khat chewers. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional, sellers to sellers survey on the representative sample of 422 male subjects, aged ≥ 16 years, was conducted in Bahir Dar, North western Ethiopia from January to September 2013. Data were collected after khat chewing. Study individuals were selected using systematic random sampling technique and data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was made using SPSS version 16.0 for windows package. Results: A total of 422 male khat chewers were included in study, 422 respond to the questioners, giving a response rate of 100%. The study found that the mean age of participants with standard deviation was 30.31 ± 1.39 years old. Sixty two percent of participants reported oral health problems. Of the 262 self-reported oral problems; 78.6% had dental decay or tooth discolouration, 21.4% gum problems (inflammation, bleeding). Those who started khat chewing at early age(7-15yrs) was found to be associated significantly with self rated oral health problem (AOR: 2.85, CI 95%:1.26-6.45) and P≤0.04. With regard to frequency of khat chewing; frequent khat chewers(≥ 3days) were 7.58 times more likely to be affected by self rated oral health problem compared to those who chewed less frequently (AOR:7.58,95%CI:3.53-16.27). Chewers who chewed 51gm-100gm and ≤ 100gm per session are 1.95 and 4.33 times more likely to be affected by oral health problem compared to those who chewed 25gm-50gm per session and amount of khat chewed per session were found to be significantly associated with self rated oral health (AOR: 1.95, 95%CI: 1.16-3.30), (AOR: 4.33, 95%CI: 2.49-7.53) respectively. Conclusion: There is significant association between Chat chewing behaviors (amounts of khat chewed during khat session, frequency of khat chewing, the level of age khat chewing started) and self rated oral health problem.
Keywords
Khat Chewing, Bahir Dar City, Self Rated Oral Health Out Comes, Amount and Frequency of Khat Chewing
To cite this article
Muluken Walle, Khat Chewing and Self Rated Oral Health Out Comes in Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia, American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 344-349. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20140206.14
Reference
[1]
Saw air F. A., Al - Mutwakel A. Al - Eryani K. , Al - Surhy A. , Mar uyama S. , Cheng J . , Al - Sharabi A. , Saku T. High relative frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Yemen: Qat and tobacco chewing as its aetiological back ground. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 2 007, 1 7(3): 185 – 1 95.
[2]
Drake PH. Khat-chewing in the Near East. Lancet. 1988, 8584:532–3.
[3]
Kalix, P. & Braenden, O. Pharmacological aspects of the chewing of khat leaves. Pharmacological Reviews. 1985, 37, 149-164.
[4]
Kalix, P. Khat: a plant with amphetamine effects. Journal of Substance Abuse and Treatment. 1988, 5, 163–169.
[5]
Kalix, P. Cathinone, a natural amphetamine. Pharmacology and Toxicology. 1992, 70, 77–86
[6]
Weir S. Qat in Yemen: consumption and social change London: Published for the Trustees of the British Museum by British Museum Publications. 1985,7:23-26
[7]
Kennedy JG. The flower of paradise: the institutionalized use of the drug qat in North Yemen Dordrecht; Lancaster: Reidel. 1987, 9:32-34
[8]
Bizuayehu W, Muluken W, Kidest R. Effects of Khat Chewing Behaviours on Health Outcomes amongMale Khat Chewers in Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia. American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 89-97.
[9]
Dechassa, L. Khat (Catha edulis): Botany, Distribution, Cultivation, Usage and Economics in Ethiopia. UN Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, 2001.
[10]
Yigzaw Kebede, Tefera Abula, Belete Ayele, Amsalu Feleke, Getu Degu, Abera Kifle, Zeleke Alebachew, En dris Mekonnen, and Belay Tessema. Substance Abuse For the Ethiopian Health Center Team: Gonder University. 2005: 7 - 19
[11]
Belew M, Kebede D, Kassaye M, Enquoselassie F. The magnitude of khat use and its association with health, nutrition and socio-economic status. Ethiop Med J, 2000, 38(1): 11-26.
[12]
Numan N. Exploration of adverse psychological symptoms in Yemeni khat users by the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Addiction. 2004, 99(1): 61-5.
[13]
World Bank. Yemen towards Qat demand reduction. 2007, 39738-YE.
[14]
Ayana AM, Mekonen Z (2004). Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing, socio-demographic description and its effect on academic performance, Jimma University students. Ethiop Med J. 2002. 42(2): 125-36.
[15]
Kalix P. Pharmacological properties of the stimulant khat. Pharmacol Ther. 1990; 48: 397–416
[16]
Hassan NAGM. Gunaid AA, El Khally FMY, Murray-Lyon IM. The effect of Khat chewing leaves on the Human mood. Saudi Med J. 2002; 23(7): 850–853
[17]
Hassan NAGM, Gunaid AA, El Khally FMY, Murray-Lyon IM. The subjective effects of chewing qat leaves in human volunteers. Annals of Saudi Medicine.2003; 22(1–2): 34–37
[18]
Pantelis C, Hindler CG, Taylor JC. Use and abuse of khat (catha edulis): a review of the distribution, pharmacology, side effects and a description of psychosis attributed to khat chewing. Psychol Med.1989; 19: 657–668
[19]
Hassan NAGM, Gunaid AA, Ali MS, Shehab MMI. The effects of chewing qat leaves on psychotic patients. The Journal of The Egyptian Society of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics. 2003; 23 (1): 179–190.
[20]
Halket JM, Karusu Z, Murray-Lyon IM. Plasma cathinone levels following chewing khat leaves (Catha edulis Forsk). J Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 46: 111–113.
[21]
Al-Motarreb AL , Al-Kebsi M, Al-Adhi B, Broadley KJ. Khat chewing and acute myocardial infarction. Heart. 2002; 87: 279–280.
[22]
Heymann TD, Bhupulan A, Zuriekat NEK, Bomanji J, Drinkwater C, Giles P. Murray-Lyon IM. Khat chewing delays gastric emptying of a semi-solid meal. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.1995; 9: 81–83.
[23]
Gunaid AA, El Khally FMY, Hassan NAGM, Murray-Lyon IM. Chewing qat leaves slows the whole gut transit time. Saudi Med J. 1999; 20: 444–447.
[24]
Kassim S, Croucher R. Khat chewing amongst UK resident male Yemeni adults: an exploratory study. Int Dent J. 2006), 56(2):97-101.
[25]
Griffiths P, Gossop M, Wickenden S, Dunworth J, Harris K, Lloyd C : A transcultural pattern of drug use: qat (khat) in the UK. Br J Psychiatry. 1997, 170(281-4).
[26]
Fasanmade A, Kwok E, Newman L . Oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with khat chewing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007, 104(1): e53-5.
[27]
Cott CA, Gignac MA, Badley EM : Determinants of self rated health for Canadians with chronic disease and disability. J Epidemiol Community Health.1999, 53(11):731-6.
[28]
Kaplan G, Baron-Epel O : What lies behind the subjective evaluation of health status? Soc Sci Med. 2003, 56(8):1669-76.
[29]
Locker D, Maggirias J, Wexler E : What frames of reference underlie self-ratings of oral health? J Public Health Dent. 2009, 69(2):78-89.
[30]
Adams J, White M . Is the disease risk associated with good self-reported health constant across the socio-economic spectrum? Public Health.2006, 120(1):70-5.
[31]
Dalstra JA, Kunst AE, Borrell C, Breeze E, Cambois E, Costa G, et al. Socioeconomic differences in the prevalence of common chronic diseases: an overview of eight European countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2005, 34(2):316-26.
[32]
Schaufelberger M, Rosengren A. Heart failure in different occupational classes in Sweden. Eur Heart J. 2007, 28(2): 212-8.
[33]
Goldman N, Lin IF, Weinstein M, Lin YH. Evaluating the quality of self-reports of hypertension and diabetes. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003, 56(2):148-54.
[34]
Kriegsman DM, Penninx BW, van Eijk JT, Boeke AJ, Deeg DJ . Self-reports and general practitioner information on the presence of chronic diseases in community dwelling elderly. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996, 49(12):1407-17
[35]
Schrijvers CT, Stronks K, van de Mheen DH, Coebergh JW, Mackenbach JP. Validation of cancer prevalence data from a postal survey by comparison with cancer registry records. Am J Epidemiol. 1994, 139(4):408-14.
[36]
Tomar SL. Public health perspectives on surveillance for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2007, 78 (7):1380-6.
[37]
Bizuayehu W, Muluken W. The Effect of Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing on Blood Pressure among Male Adult Chewers, Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 461-468. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20140205.23
Browse journals by subject