Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Page: 356-360
Prevalence of Diabetes, Knowledge and Attitude of Rural Population towards Diabetes and Hypoglycaemic Event, Sudan 2013
Siham Ahmed Balla, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
Haider Abu Ahmed, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
Mohamed Ali Awadelkareem, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
Received: Sep. 12, 2014;       Accepted: Sep. 19, 2014;       Published: Nov. 10, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20140206.16      View  4037      Downloads  1797
Abstract
Introduction: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising and needs adequate knowledge for its control. Objectives: The study aim was to identify prevalence of diabetes, population`s knowledge, their attitude towards hypoglycemia event and factors associated with the level of knowledge. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in a rural area of Sudan. The study population was 3316 adult males /females above 18 years of age. Structured questionnaire was used including eighteen questions to assess the knowledge about diabetes. Knowledge scores were recorded into adequate knowledge and inadequate knowledge. Attitude of diabetic and non-diabetic population was compared. Seven independent variables were included in logistic regression model to present the factors which contributed to adequate knowledge about diabetes. Results: The study included 1423 (42.9%) males and 1893(57.1%) females. The prevalence of diabetes in rural population was 11.2%. Adequate knowledge about diabetes was 15%. Genetics and nutrition habits were recognized as risk factors of diabetes by the population, 57.2% & 46.9% respectively. Dizziness as a sign of hypoglycemia was mentioned (38.1%) followed by rigors (24.4%), sweating (21.4%) and palpitation (17.1%). Retinopathy (31.1%) and cardiovascular diseases (16.0%) were known by the study population as complications of diabetes. The response of diabetic population towards hypoglycemia event was significantly higher compared to non-diabetic, p-value 0.001. Gender, age, education, family history of diabetes, being a diabetic and smoker were contributory factors to knowledge. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in rural population of Sudan. Knowledge about diabetes is low. A community based educational program is needed.
Keywords
Diabetes, Knowledge, Attitude, Factors, Rural, Sudan
To cite this article
Siham Ahmed Balla, Haider Abu Ahmed, Mohamed Ali Awadelkareem, Prevalence of Diabetes, Knowledge and Attitude of Rural Population towards Diabetes and Hypoglycaemic Event, Sudan 2013, American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 356-360. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20140206.16
Reference
[1]
Guariguata L, Whiting D, Hambleton I, Beagley J, Linnenkamp U, Shaw J. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2014;103(2):137-49.
[2]
Hwang CK, Han PV, Zabetian A, Ali MK, Venkat Narayan K. Rural diabetes prevalence quintuples over twenty-five years in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2012;96(3):271-85.
[3]
Balla SA, Abdalla AA, Elmukashfi TA, Ahmed HA. Hypertension among Rural Population in Four States: Sudan 2012. Global journal of health science. 2014;6(3):p206.
[4]
CBS. Sudan Household Survey. In: statistics, editor. khartoum2010.
[5]
Muninarayana C, Balachandra G, Hiremath S, Iyengar K, Anil N. Prevalence and awareness regarding diabetes mellitus in rural Tamaka, Kolar. International journal of diabetes in developing countries. 2010;30(1):18.
[6]
Singh A, Milton PE, Nanaiah A, Samuel P, Thomas N. Awareness and attitude toward diabetes in the rural population of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2012;16(Suppl1):S83.
[7]
Ulvi OS, Chaudhary RY, Ali T, Alvi R, Khan M, Khan M, et al. Investigating the awareness level about Diabetes Mellitus and associated factors in Tarlai (Rural Islamabad). J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59:798-801.
[8]
Foma MA, Saidu Y, Omoleke SA, Jafali J. Awareness of diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in the Gambia: a strong case for health education and promotion. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):1124.
[9]
Deepa M, Bhansali A, Anjana R, Pradeepa R, Joshi S, Joshi P, et al. Knowledge and awareness of diabetes in urban and rural India: The Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (Phase I): Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes 4. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014;18(3):379.
[10]
Sabri AA, Qayyum MA, Saigol NU, Zafar K, Aslam F. Comparing knowledge of diabetes mellitus among rural and urban diabetics. McGill Journal of Medicine: MJM. 2007;10(2):87.
[11]
Lewis K, Patel D, Yorston D, Charteris D. A qualitative study in the United Kingdom of factors influencing attendance by patients with diabetes at ophthalmic outpatient clinics. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 2007;14(6):375-80.
[12]
Munshi MN, Segal AR, Suhl E, Staum E, Desrochers L, Sternthal A, et al. Frequent hypoglycemia among elderly patients with poor glycemic control. Archives of internal medicine. 2011;171(4):362-4.
[13]
Năftănăilă I. Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in Project Environments. Review of International Comparative Management; 2010.
[14]
Hwang CK, Han PV, Zabetian A, Ali MK, Venkat Narayan KM. Rural diabetes prevalence quintuples over twenty-five years in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2012;96(3):271-85.
[15]
Health SNMo. Sudan Household Survey In: Directorate P, editor. Khartoum: CBS; 2010.
[16]
Savoia C, Schiffrin E. Vascular inflammation in hypertension and diabetes: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic interventions. Clinical Science. 2007;112:375-84.
[17]
Asekun-Olarinmoye E, Akinwusi P, Adebimpe W, Isawumi M, Hassan M, Olowe O, et al. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria. International journal of general medicine. 2013;6:317.
[18]
Mohan D, Raj D, Shanthirani C, Datta M, Unwin N, Kapur A, et al. Awareness and Knowledge of diabetes in Chennai-The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study [CURES-9]. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 2005;53:283-7.
[19]
Jasper US, Ogundunmade BG, Opara MC, Akinrolie O, Pyiki EB, Umar A. Determinants of diabetes knowledge in a cohort of Nigerian diabetics. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2014;13(1):39.
[20]
Fitzgerald N, Damio G, Segura-Pérez S, Pérez-Escamilla R. Nutrition knowledge, food label use, and food intake patterns among Latinas with and without type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(6):960-7.
[21]
Gul N. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of type 2 diabetic patients. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2010;22(3):128-31.
[22]
Khandekar R, Al Harby S, Al Harthy H, Al Lawatti J. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding eye complications and care among Omani persons with diabetes-A cross sectional study. Oman journal of ophthalmology. 2010;3(2):60.
[23]
Al-Adsani A, Moussa M, Al-Jasem L, Abdella N, Al-Hamad N. The level and determinants of diabetes knowledge in Kuwaiti adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes & metabolism. 2009;35(2):121-8.
[24]
Maina WK, Ndegwa ZM, Njenga EW, Muchemi EW. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices related to Diabetes among Community Members in Four Provinces in Kenya: A Cross-sectional study. Journal of Pan African Medical, 7 (2), 1. 2011;9.
[25]
Moodley L, Rambiritch V. An assessment of the level of knowledge about diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in a primary healthcare setting. South African Family Practice. 2007;49(10):16-d.
[26]
Baptiste-Roberts K, Gary TL, Beckles GL, Gregg EW, Owens M, Porterfield D, et al. Family history of diabetes, awareness of risk factors, and health behaviors among African Americans. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(5):907-12.
[27]
Kamel N, Badawy Y, El-Zeiny NA, Merdan I. Sociodemographic determinants of management behaviour of diabetic patients. Part II. Diabetics' knowledge of the disease and their management behaviour. Eastern Mediterranean health journal= La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale= al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit. 1999;5(5):974-83.
[28]
Abdo NM, Mohamed ME. Effectiveness of Health Education Program For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Zagazig University Diabetes Clinic, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2010;85(3-4):113-30.
[29]
Leckie AM, Graham MK, Grant JB, Ritchie PJ, Frier BM. Frequency, Severity, and Morbidity of Hypoglycemia Occurring in the Workplace in People With Insulin-Treated Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005 June 1, 2005;28(6):1333-8.
[30]
Zoungas S, Patel A, Chalmers J, de Galan BE, Li Q, Billot L, et al. Severe Hypoglycemia and Risks of Vascular Events and Death. New Engl J Med. 2010;363(15):1410-8. PubMed PMID: 20925543.
[31]
Murugesan N, Snehalatha C, Shobhana R, Roglic G, Ramachandran A. Awareness about diabetes and its complications in the general and diabetic population in a city in southern India. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2007;77(3):433-7.
[32]
Rothman RL, Malone R, Bryant B, Wolfe C, Padgett P, DeWalt DA, et al. The Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy in Diabetes Scale: A Diabetes Knowledge Scale for Vulnerable Patients. The Diabetes Educator. 2005 March 1, 2005;31(2):215-24.
[33]
Chilton L, Hu J, Wallace DC. Health-Promoting Lifestyle and Diabetes Knowledge in Hispanic American Adults. Home Health Care Management & Practice. 2006 August 1, 2006;18(5):378-85.
Browse journals by subject