Volume 7, Issue 5, September 2019, Page: 89-99
Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Icacinia manni Tuber on the Reproductive Parameters of Male Rats
Udokang Nsikak Ephraim, Department of Physiology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Udom Utibe Godwin, Department of Physiology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Osim Eme Efiom, Department of Physiology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Antai Atim Bassey, Department of Physiology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Received: Sep. 10, 2019;       Accepted: Sep. 28, 2019;       Published: Oct. 20, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20190705.16      View  36      Downloads  16
Abstract
The shift from the current energy sources in foods and feeds to a more available and affordable sources have been observed in recent times. This is in an attempt to balance food availability and utilization in the increasing population. A search for an appropriate and a less expensive energy source in poultry feeds has driven poultry farmers to research on Icacinia manni. This plant is widely available mostly in the tropical rain forest in Africa as a wild shrub with large underground tubers of high carbohydrate content. This study was carried out on male rats with Icacinia manni tuber, a product that has been observed to supplement other energy sources in foods and feeds. This research work examined the effects of crude ethanolic extract of Icacinia manni tuber on Sex hormonal levels, Seminalysis and Testicular histology of albino Wistar rats. A total of 40 rats divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) of ten rats each were used for this study. The Icaciania manni tuber was extracted using ethanol. The median lethal dose (LD50) of 894.43 mg/kg of the extract was estimated using albino Wistar mice by intra peritoneal (Ip) route using the method of Larke (1983). Group A served as the control and was treated with distilled water at 5ml/kg. Group B, C and D were the experimental (treated) groups gavaged with 1/10, 2/10 and 3/10 of LD50 respectively for 28 days. On the 28th day, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and sacrificed. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, centrifuged and serum obtained for hormonal assay. Abdominal dissection was extended to recover the testis for histology and epididymis for seminalysis. The result revealed a highly significant (p>0.05) decrease in testosterone and progesterone levels in group D compared with the control. Apart from estradiol level which was not statistically affected, other hormone levels were increased (p>0.05) in group D compared with the control group. The decrease in sperm concentration was also observed in the treated groups when compared with the control group. The sperm morphology showed severe damage on sperm especially at the neck and head region in the treated group compared to control group. Sperm motility was significantly reduced in the treated groups compared to control group. Histologically, damages to most part of the testis were observed in the treated groups compared to control group. This study finally projects that Icacinia manni tuber has deteriorating effect on male reproductive health.
Keywords
Icacinia manni tuber, Sperm Morphology, Sperm Motility, Sperm Concentration, Sex Hormones, Testicular Histology, Antifertility
To cite this article
Udokang Nsikak Ephraim, Udom Utibe Godwin, Osim Eme Efiom, Antai Atim Bassey, Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Icacinia manni Tuber on the Reproductive Parameters of Male Rats, American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 7, No. 5, 2019, pp. 89-99. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20190705.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Umoren, U. E., Isika, M. A., Asanga, E. P. and Ezeigwe, P. N. (2007). Effect of Replacement of Maize with Earth Ball (Icacinia manni) Meal on the Performance of Broiler Chickens. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 2368-2373.
[2]
Fassiet, D. W. (1973). Oxalates: Intoxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods. National Academy of Science, Washington DC.
[3]
Antai, S. P. and Obong, U.S. (1992). The effects of fermentation on the nutrient status of some toxic components of Icacinia manni. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 42: 219-224.
[4]
Essien, C. A. and Sam, I. M. (2018). Nutritional Evaluation of Icacinia manni (Earth Ball) Processed in Saline as a Source of Dietary Energy in Broiler Production. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 8 (20).
[5]
Antai, S. P. & Nkwelang, G. (1999). Reduction of some toxicants in Icacina mannii by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands). 53: 103-111.
[6]
Burkil. H. M. (1985). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens; Kew.
[7]
Malan, D. F., Neuba, D. F. R. and Kouakou, K. L. (2015). Medicinal plants and traditional healing practices in ehotile people, around the aby lagoon (eastern littoral of Côte d'Ivoire). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 11 (21).
[8]
Lorke, D. (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archives of Toxicology. 54: 275–287.
[9]
Rouge, M. (2004). Sperm morphology. In M. Rouge (ed.), Hypertexts for biomedical sciences. Colorado: Colorado State University Press, 33-36.
[10]
Zaneveld, L. J. D. and Polakoski, K. L. (1977). Collection and physical examination of the ejaculate. In E. S. E. Hafez (Ed.), Techniques of human andrology. Armsterdam: North Holland Biomedical Press, 147-156.
[11]
Mills, E. M., Gunasekar, P. G. and Pavlakovic, G. and Isom, G. E. (1996). Cyanide-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in differentiated PC12 cells. Journal of Neurochemistry, 67 (3): 1039-1046.
[12]
Lee, H., Baek, S. H., Lee, J. H., Kim, C., Ko, J., Lee, S., Chinnathambi, A., Alharbi, S. A., Yang, W. M., Um, J., Sethi, G., and Ahn, K. S. (2017). Isorhynchophylline, a Potent Plant Alkaloid, Induces Apoptotic and Anti-Metastatic Effects in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through the Modulation of Diverse Cell Signaling Cascades. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18: 1095.
[13]
Delimont, N. M., Haub, M. D. and Lindshield, B. L. (2017). The Impact of Tannin Consumption on Iron Bioavailability and Status: A Narrative Review. Current Developments in Nutrition, 1 (2): 1–12.
[14]
Lopez, H. W., Leenhardt, F., Coudray, C. and Remesy, C. (2002), Minerals and phytic acid interactions: is it a real problem for human nutrition? International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 37: 727-739.
[15]
Zimmermann, M. B. and Hurrell, R. F. (2007). Nutritional iron deficiency in patients with chronic illnesses. Lancet, 370 (9586): 511-520.
[16]
Schlemmer, U., Frølich, W., Prieto, R. M. and Grases, F. (2009). Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 53 (2): S330-375.
[17]
Gallo-Payet, N. and Payet, M. D. (1989). Excitation-secretion coupling: involvement of potassium channels in ACTH-stimulated rat adrenocortical cells. Journal of Endocrinology. 120: 409–421.
[18]
Wang, J., & Pantopoulos, K. (2011). Regulation of cellular iron metabolism. The Biochemical journal, 434 (3): 365–381.
[19]
Cummings, T. F. (2004). The treatment of cyanide poisoning. Occupational Medicine (Oxford University Press journal) 54: 82–85.
[20]
Franken, D. R. and Henkel, R. (2012). Morphopathology of Sperm: It’s Impact on Fertilization Journal of Reproduction and Stem Cell Biotechnology, 3 (1): 1-8.
[21]
Chemes, H. E. andRawe, V. (2007). Sperm pathology: pathogenic mechanisms and fertility potential in assisted reproduction in Male Infertility: Diagnosis and treatment edsOehninger SC and Kruger TF InformaLkd, UK, 85-103.
[22]
Mannowetz, N., Wandernoth, P. M. and Wennemuth, G. (2012). Glucose is a pH-dependent motor for sperm beat frequency during early activation. PLoS One7: e41030.
[23]
Mukai, C. and Travis, A. J. (2012). What sperm can teach us about energy production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47 (4): 164–169.
[24]
Asuquo, L. E. and Udedibie, A. B. I. (2012). Effects of Dietary Toasted Icacinia manni Meal on the Performance of Laying Hens. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. 15 (3): 1162-1168.
Browse journals by subject