Volume 8, Issue 3, May 2020, Page: 32-41
Qualitative Research on Yellow Fever Outbreak Responses in Wolaita Zone of SNNPR Region, Ethiopia
Yonas Assefa Tufa, Public Health Emergency Management Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Yaregal Fufa, Public Health Emergency Management Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Melaku Abebe, Public Health Emergency Management Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Shambel Habebe, Public Health Emergency Management Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Diriba Sufa, Public Health Emergency Management Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Desalegn Bealy, Public Health Emergency Management Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Adamu Tayachew, Public Health Emergency Management Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Musse Tadesse, Public Health Emergency Management Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Wadu Marshalo, Public Health Emergency Management, Wolaita Zone Health Bureau, SNNPR, Ethiopia
Bletete W/Mariam, Public Health Emergency Management, SNNPR Health Bureau, SNNPR, Ethiopia
Mesfine Melese, Public Health Emergency Management, SNNPR Health Bureau, SNNPR, Ethiopia
Zerihun Doda, CERI/CUED/Department of Environment & Climate Change, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Received: Apr. 15, 2020;       Accepted: May 5, 2020;       Published: Jun. 15, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20200803.13      View  45      Downloads  28
Background: Outbreak response basically entails preparedness which helps to establish arrangements in advance to enable timely, effective and appropriate responses to specific potential hazardous events or emerging disaster situations that might threaten society/environment. Researches about outbreak response or interventions that focus on post-incident communication have recently been published in a range of disciplinary journals, from organizational psychology to organizational communication one reason that the interventions are successful is because it provides team with a common time and place for purposeful discussion-based learning. Objective: To review outbreak response from the October 2018 Wolayta Zone yellow fever outbreak management in SNNPR, Ethiopia. Methods: Qualitative research approach, with Thematic Analysis. Purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected through FGDs, in-depth interviews, observation and document reviews. Results: However, it is worth-noting that the Review showed that despite late detection, a rapid response team was set up and was able to save the lives of many during the outbreak. The findings further showed there was good coordination among various stakeholders at different levels and with satisfying sharing of roles and responsibilities. Conclusion: The case was detected lately after one month of since the first case were detected and all case which admitted this period were miss-diagnosed of the cases and leading to some deaths. Even though there was a confusion on identifying the first case, after the confirmation of the first case, the case management went as per the standard guideline and SOPs, helping save so many lives through availing the service free of charge.
Outbreak Response; Yellow Fever, After Action Review
To cite this article
Yonas Assefa Tufa, Yaregal Fufa, Melaku Abebe, Shambel Habebe, Diriba Sufa, Desalegn Bealy, Adamu Tayachew, Musse Tadesse, Wadu Marshalo, Bletete W/Mariam, Mesfine Melese, Zerihun Doda, Qualitative Research on Yellow Fever Outbreak Responses in Wolaita Zone of SNNPR Region, Ethiopia, American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 32-41. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20200803.13
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Allen, J. A., Baran, B. E., Scott, C. W. (2010). After-action reviews: a venue for the promotion of safety climate. Accid. Anal. Prev. 42, 750–757.
Beck SJ Littlefield RS and Weber AJ (2012). Public meeting facilitation: A naïve theory of crisis meeting interaction. Small Group Research 43: 211-235.
Buehler JW, Hopkins RS, Overhage JM, Sosin DM, Tong V (2004). Framework for evaluating public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks: recommendations from the CDC Working Group. MMWR Recomm Rep.; 53: 1–11.
Carroll, J. S., (1995). Incident reviews in high-hazard industries: sense making and learning under ambiguity and accountability. Org. Environ. 9, 175–197.
Covello, V. T., P. Slovic and D. v. Winterfeldt (1986). Risk communication: a review of the literature. Washington, D. C., National Emergency Training Center.
DeRue D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Hollenbeck, J. R., & Workman, K. (2012). A quasi-experimental study of after-event reviews and leadership development. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 997-1015.
Ellis S and Davidi I (2005) After-event reviews: Drawing lessons from successful and failed experience. Journal of Applied Psychology 90: 857-871.
Ellis S Mendel R and Nir M (2006). Learning from successful and failed experience: the moderating role of kind of after-event review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (3): 669-680.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2018). Best practice recommendations for conducting after-action reviews to enhance public health preparedness. Stockholm: ECDC; doi: 10.2900/467275.
IOM (2008). Research priorities in emergency preparedness and response for public health systems: a letter report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2008.
Jajosky RA, Groseclose SL (2008). Evaluation of reporting timeliness of public health surveillance systems for infectious diseases. BMC Public Health, 4: 29.
Kozlowski, S, J., & Salas, E. (2012). Learning, Training, and Development in Organizations, New York, NY: Routledge.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.
Mayer, R. E. (2004). How to create powerful learning environments. Psych CRITIQUES, 49 (6), 705-708.
Mearns, K., Kirwan, B., Reader, T. W., Jackson, J., Kennedy, R., Gordon, R., (2013). Development of a methodology for understanding and enhancing safety culture in Air Traffic Management. Saf. Sci. 53, 123–133.
Mobley, R. K. (2011). "What Is Risk Management?" Retrieved 9th October, 2014, from http://reliabilityweb.com/index.php/articles/what_is_ risk management/.
Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Communications with Health Care Providers (2011). A Literature Review. BMC Public Health 11: 337.
Scott CW, Allen JA, Bonilla D, Baran BE and Murphy D (2013). Ambiguity and freedom of dissent in post-incident discussion. Journal of Business Communication 50: 383-402.
Tannenbaum, S. I. & Cerasoli, C. P. (2013). Do team and individual debriefs enhance performance? A meta-analysis. Human Factors, 55.1, 231.
Tsui, F. C., et al. (2003). Technical description of RODS: a real-time public health surveillance system. J Am Med Inform Assoc, 10 (5): p. 399-408.
United States Agency for International Development (2006). After-Action Review: Technical Guidance. .
WHO (2018). International health regulations (IHR) tools for monitoring and evaluation: After Action Review. www.euro.who.int/ihr.
WHO (2015). Summary report of systematic reviews for public health emergency operations centers. Plans and procedures; communication technology and infrastructure; minimum datasets and standards; training and exercises.
WHO (2018). Joint external evaluation of IHR core capacities of Singapore. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 (WHO/WHE/CPI/REP/2018.25). License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
WHO (2017). Using Mobile Technology for Post-disaster Enhanced Surveillance in Fiji; 2017. Available: http://www.wpro.who.int/southpacific/mediacentre/releases/2016/.
Council to Improve Foodborne Outbreak Response. Investigation of clusters and outbreaks. In: CIFOR guidelines for foodborne disease outbreak response. 2nd ed. Atlanta: Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists; 2014: 139–65.
Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. Address patient privacy, authority and security concerns. http://astho.org/Toolkit/Improving-Access-to-EHRs-During-Outbreaks/Address-Patient-Privacy-Concerns/External.
SITREP on Reactive Vaccination Campaign Against Yellow Fever Outbreak, Wolaita and Gamo Gofa Zones, SNNPR- 25 November 2018, #5 Final).
Yellow Fever vaccination campaign final report report, EPHI/PHEM, Ethiopia, Nov, 25, 2018).
PHEM guideline, February, 2012, AA, Ethiopia 2012.
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/yellow-fever/7 May 2019).
Draft for Yellow Fever vaccination campaign guideline, Ethiopia, FMOH, may 2013.
WHO Progress Report on the yellow fever response For the review of the Independent Oversight Advisory Committee WHO Health Emergencies Programme10/18/2016).
Final summary report on Entomological investigation for a suspected yellow fever outbreak in Offa Woreda of Wolaita zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia).
Wolaita_ZHD. Situational report on Suspected Yellow Fever Outbreak in Offa Woreda of Wolaita Zone, SNNPR-Ethiopia, 23 October 2018, #12. Report. 2018; 12.
WHO. WHO Recommended Surveillance Standards. Second edition. WHO. 2014; WHO/CDS/CS.
WHO. Manual for the monitoring of yellow fever virus infection. Manual. 2004.
Lilay A, Asamene N, Bekele A, Mengesha M, Wendabeku M, Tareke I, et al. Reemergence of yellow fever in Ethiopia after 50 years, 2013 : epidemiological and entomological investigations. BMC Infect Dis. BMC Infectious Diseases; 2017; 17 (May): 343.
ECDC. Assessing the yellow fever outbreak in Angola. Mission Rep. 2016; (May).
Id BI, Weregemere NA, Id HN, Tshapenda GP, Mossoko M, Nsio J, et al. Urban yellow fever outbreak — Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2016 : Towards more rapid case detection. PLoS. 2018; 12: 1–11.
Iii EWC. Developing Early Warning Systems : A Checklist. 2006; (March).
EPHI-FMOH. Yellow fever surveillance and Outbreak Management Guideline. Guidel Ethiop. 2016; (December).
WHO. Communicable disease surveillance and response systems. Guidel to Monit Eval. 2006.
CDC. Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. 2001; 50 (Cdc).
Guidance for after action review (aar). WHO. 2018; 10.
C Serie, Andral L, Poirier A, Lindrec A, Neri P. Etudes sur la fievre jaune en Ethiopie. WHO - Bull. 1968; 38: 879–84.
Barry R. Miller MEB. Aedes albopictus mosquitoes introduced into Brazil: vector competence for yellow fever and dengue viruses. 1988. p. 476–7.
CDC. Overview of Evaluating Surveillance Systems. Guideline. 2013.
Kwagonza, L. et al. Outbreak of yellow fever in central and southwestern Uganda, February-may 2016. BMC Infect. Dis. 18, 1–9 (2018).
ECDC. Assessing the yellow fever outbreak in Angola – European Medical Corps mission undertaken in the framework of the European Union Civil Protection Mechanism, 10–20 May 2016. 10–11 (2016).
Wilder-smith, A., Lee, V. & Gubler, D. J. An update on the severe outbreak of HIV in Kot Imrana, Pakistan Yellow fever : is Asia prepared for an epidemic ? Extensively drug-resistant typhoid fever in Pakistan. Lancet Infect. Dis. 19, 241–242 (2018).
Wasserman, S., Anantharajah, P. & Lian, P. International Journal of Infectious Diseases Yellow fever cases in Asia : primed for an epidemic. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 48, 98–103 (2016).
Mulchandani, R. et al. A community-level investigation following a yellow fever virus outbreak in South Omo. 1–26 (2019). doi: 10.7717/peerj.6466.
Kelly-cirino, C. D. et al. Importance of diagnostics in epidemic and pandemic preparedness. 1–8 (2019). doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001179.
Browse journals by subject